However, considering our choice of participants, the L2 learning experiences of these respondents may not be broadly generalizable, and thus their results should be seen as more representative of this particular context than other parallel settings. For this study, only levels 2, and 3, were used because the Korean Ministry of Education, Science and Technology MEST, mandates a level of 2, words for upper-secondary school learners. The representative vocabulary score for individual participants was an aggregated score of levels and In order to measure the syntactic knowledge of these L2 learners, we borrowed the multiple-choice format of the Korean MEST grammar tests and adapted the content to include 20 items that each assessed a discrete point of syntactic knowledge.
Discrete points of grammatical knowledge tested in the 20 items included knowledge of a agreement; b modifiers; c coordinating elements, subordination, reduction, and apposition, d prepositions; and e proper order of the elements in sentences. Combined with L2 vocabulary knowledge, this made up the latent variable L2 linguistic knowledge. The reliability alpha for this test of L2 listening proficiency was.
In addition to the three tests above, we developed a survey for this study to measure L2 listening strategy use, L2 listening anxiety, and self-determined motivation.
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We compiled a pool of items from existing scales. Through item analysis we reduced the scales to increase reliability, resulting in a final survey instrument composed of 48 items across the three constructs. The first of these relates to how a listener develops a series of conscious steps to perform a listening task, while the second concerns how a listener manipulates information to aid comprehension.
However, due to inconsistent results with the subfactors of this construct in EFA, items were examined through unidimensional confirmatory factor analysis and all items with a factor loading value of less than.
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Piloting of the survey, the grammar test, and L2 listening test took place with L2 learners in two high schools from an adjacent region to ensure the reliability of the instruments prior to our main study. Due to the comprehensive materials we sought to administer, we anticipated difficulty in recruiting participants, and so began by approaching contacts in the teaching faculty of high schools region-wide during the first few weeks of the school year.
Research assistants then informed students from participating schools about the purpose of the data we would be collecting. The final L2 vocabulary test, L2 listening proficiency test, L2 grammar test, and item questionnaire were completed by the students who agreed to participate during study-hall periods in the final weeks of the spring semester. In order to determine the measured variables for self-determined motivation, we first performed a stepwise multiple regression so that only statistically significant measured variables for L2 listening proficiency were included in the measurement model.
Following this, we conducted a structural equation model SEM in AMOS 22 using maximum-likelihood estimation to examine the causal relationships among the cognitive and affective variables thought to influence L2 listening proficiency. We followed the recommended two-step approach Kline of testing the measurement model before building the structural model.
In the measurement model , the mutual relationships among the measured variables and hypothesized latent variables were estimated through a confirmatory factor analysis CFA to verify the convergent and discriminant validity of the model. Once the CFA indicated it was appropriate to move to the structural model , we examined the regression coefficients that indicate the causal relationships of each latent variable to one another with regards to L2 listening proficiency.
After determining the final model we verified the significance levels of the total effects, direct effects, and indirect effects among the pertinent variables for L2 listening proficiency using a bootstrapping technique.
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We, thus, decided to include only intrinsic motivation—measured through its three sub-factors—as a latent variable for the measurement model. We also noted the particularly low R 2 value—intrinsic motivation accounted for only 4. Final structural model. Covariances and indicators were omitted for simplicity. Standardized coefficients shown. Taken together, these results suggested that it was safe to proceed to the structural model. All of the path loadings in this proposed model were significant at the level of. Based on this, we modified our model by first removing the path from L2 listening strategy use to L2 listening proficiency, and then by connecting measurement errors.
As can be seen from Fig. Intrinsic motivation only indirectly affected L2 listening proficiency, mediated through L2 listening strategy use, L2 linguistic knowledge, and L2 listening anxiety.
Task-based Meta-cognitive Instruction Approach to Self-regulation in Listening Comprehension
For its part, L2 listening strategy use had a direct effect on both L2 linguistic knowledge and L2 listening anxiety, whereas it had an indirect effect on both L2 listening anxiety and L2 listening proficiency. Furthermore, the indirect effect it exerted on L2 listening proficiency was mediated through L2 linguistic knowledge and L2 listening anxiety. On the other hand, L2 linguistic knowledge had both a direct and indirect impact on L2 listening proficiency — the latter mediated through L2 listening anxiety.
L2 linguistic knowledge also had a direct effect on L2 listening anxiety, while L2 listening anxiety exerted an effect only on L2 listening proficiency.
It is also clear, given the moderate effect size of the mediation path, that intrinsic motivation plays a role in more frequent use of L2 listening strategies, which increases L2 linguistic knowledge, ultimately improving L2 listening proficiency. Furthermore, L2 linguistic knowledge makes a modest contribution to L2 listening proficiency through reducing L2 listening anxiety. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the particular roles of the cognitive and affective factors that account for L2 listening proficiency in language learners at the lower end of the proficiency spectrum.
With respect to the role that self-determined motivation plays in L2 listening proficiency, the above results indicate that among the subtypes of self-determined motivation, intrinsic motivation was the most significant predictor for L2 listening proficiency. This finding is consistent with evidence from previous studies suggesting that the more intrinsically motivated L2 learners are, the greater the increase in their L2 listening proficiency level Pae ; Vandergrift Tangentially related to this, others have proposed that learners who are further along on the continuum of increasing self-determination will be more likely to use L2 learning strategies more frequently and in better combinations, and more willing to invest the time and effort required for self-regulatory learning MacIntyre and Noels ; Noels —a finding confirmed in our results.
This robust connection between intrinsic motivation and L2 listening strategy use may explain why the more intrinsically motivated students reported more autonomous, self-regulated learning than those who were not. The implication of this link between intrinsic motivation and self-regulated learning is that L2 listening strategy use can be facilitated through intrinsic motivation.
One way of accomplishing this may be through creating a less-controlled learning atmosphere that allows learners more autonomy, and by providing learners with feedback that increases their intrinsic motivation Noels et al. We were also interested in the nature of the effect that L2 listening strategy use has on L2 listening proficiency. Unexpectedly, the path loading from L2 listening strategy use to L2 listening proficiency was shown to be nonsignificant, and we found instead that L2 linguistic knowledge fully mediates their relationship.
Previous research does confirm this finding that learners at higher levels of ability generally exhibit more varied and more effective L2 strategy use Griffiths and Oxford On the other hand, the fact that the strength of the path coefficient from L2 linguistic knowledge to L2 listening proficiency was the highest of all provides evidence for the relative importance of L2 linguistic knowledge for L2 listening proficiency, and this appears to implicate the somewhat controversial notion of a linguistic threshold.
The fact that, in our structural model, L2 linguistic knowledge explained the most variance in L2 listening proficiency confirms that both grammar knowledge and vocabulary knowledge are key factors in determining L2 listening proficiency.
A lack of L2 linguistic knowledge may hinder the use of L2 listening strategies and increase L2 listening anxiety, thus negatively affecting L2 listening proficiency. However, the larger issue from our findings is not whether L2 listening is more a question of listening ability or language proficiency as Vandergrift proposes, but that language proficiency actually appears to determine listening ability. As we expected, L2 listening anxiety had a negative relationship with L2 linguistic knowledge and the use of L2 listening strategies.
Additionally, as levels of L2 linguistic knowledge become greater, the less L2 listening anxiety learners are likely to have see also Dewaele and MacIntyre These findings offer additional justification both for intentional L2 listening strategy instruction and for increasing L2 linguistic knowledge in order to decrease L2 listening anxiety and thereby improve L2 listening proficiency. Taken all together, the structural relationships among the pertinent factors affecting L2 listening proficiency begin from intrinsic motivation which directly affects L2 listening strategy use, indicating that intrinsic motivation only indirectly affects L2 listening proficiency mediated through all the other variables.
L2 listening strategy use has an indirect impact on L2 listening proficiency mediated through L2 linguistic knowledge and L2 listening anxiety as well as an indirect impact on L2 listening proficiency. Furthermore, L2 linguistic knowledge directly affects L2 listening proficiency and also indirectly affects L2 listening proficiency mediated through L2 listening anxiety.
Last, L2 listening anxiety only directly affects L2 listening proficiency.
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The purpose of this study was to test a structural model—based on combined empirical evidence and theoretical considerations—of several crucial affective and cognitive factors for L2 listening proficiency. Our data indicate that among the subtypes of self-determined motivation, intrinsic motivation was the most significant predictor for L2 listening proficiency. While this finding is not entirely new or surprising, we further established a robust connection between intrinsic motivation and L2 listening strategy use, with the more intrinsically motivated students reporting increased self-regulated learning behavior.
With regard to the relationship between L2 strategy use and L2 listening proficiency, we discovered no direct link. Instead, it was only through the mediation of L2 linguistic knowledge that the former impacted the latter. Furthermore, in our model L2 linguistic knowledge explained the most variance in L2 listening proficiency, which provides evidence that both grammar knowledge and vocabulary knowledge are key factors in determining L2 listening proficiency that may at certain levels even override other cognitive and affective factors—in this case, L2 listening strategy use. Listening anxiety had a negative relationship with the two cognitive variables L2 linguistic knowledge and L2 listening strategy use.
Several limitations remain in the present study. First, our measurement of anxiety posed several problems during the EFA and CFA: we could not identify meaningful subfactors of L2 listening anxiety and ultimately included only two items in our analysis i. Secondly, given the large number of tests and questionnaires we administered to our participants we used only a measure of vocabulary breadth i. Finally, in focusing primarily on the cognitive and affective constructs in our model, we did not concern ourselves with the impact of other individual variables on L2 listening proficiency e.
Potential future studies could employ multi-group analysis to investigate whether group differences exist in the structural relationships between factors influencing L2 listening for these characteristics. Despite these limitations, by investigating the combined causal relationships among cognitive and affective factors which hinder or facilitate successful L2 listening, this study is expected to contribute to current understanding and open potential avenues for continued advances in this domain.
go to site SB participated in the design of the study and completed the data collection and data analysis, and was involved in the writing of the manuscript. PH helped to draft the manuscript and participated in the interpretation of the results.